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They laughed at "Adi" for his aversion to smutty stories, and traded their jam rations for his tobacco. In early Lance Corporal Hitler adopted a stray dog he named Fuchsl little fox , who was taught many tricks and became his beloved companion.
Hitler described him as a "proper circus dog". In August the List Regiment transferred to a quiet sector of the front in Alsace. The Bavarians repulsed the attackers, suffering the second-highest losses they had on any day on the Western Front, about 7, men.
At the Nuremberg Trials , two of his former superiors testified that Hitler had refused to be considered for promotion. Thereafter, he was ordered to the depot in Munich.
He wrote to his commanding officer, Hauptmann Fritz Wiedemann , asking that he be recalled to the regiment because he could not tolerate Munich when he knew his comrades were at the Front.
On 15 October , he and several comrades were temporarily blinded —and according to Friedelind Wagner ,  Hitler also lost his voice— due to a British mustard-gas attack.
After initial treatment, Hitler was hospitalized in Pasewalk in Pomerania. I knew immediately that it would be realized. He returned to Munich for demobilization.
After Hitler became the leader of the Nazi Party , he began acquiring paramilitary -like titles and using Nazi Party paramilitary uniforms to denote his position.
In the late s, Hitler occasionally wore a black uniform, but this was during a period when Hitler was emulating Benito Mussolini.
During Nazi rallies at Nuremberg in the early s, Hitler temporarily wore the Nuremberg Party Day Badge , but discontinued this after about Six days after being sworn in as Chancellor in , Hitler met with the German military leaders, declaring that his first priority was rearmament.
Officers were instructed to mingle with other ranks. Ranks of SA men served as guards inside the building, while large groups outside opposing the proposed legislation shouted slogans and threats towards the arriving members of parliament.
The Act passed by a vote of —84, with all parties except the Social Democrats voting in favour. At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the National Socialist movement will go on for 1, years!
They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power! Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his allies began to suppress the remaining opposition.
The Social Democratic Party was banned and its assets seized. On 2 May all trade unions were forced to dissolve and their leaders were arrested.
Some were sent to concentration camps. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding.
On 2 August , Hindenburg died. As head of state, Hitler became commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
In early , Hitler used blackmail to consolidate his hold over the military by instigating the Blomberg—Fritsch Affair. On the same day, sixteen generals were stripped of their commands and 44 more were transferred; all were suspected of not being sufficiently pro-Nazi.
Hitler took care to give his dictatorship the appearance of legality. Many of his decrees were explicitly based on the Reichstag Fire Decree and hence on Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution.
The Reichstag renewed the Enabling Act twice, each time for a four-year period. In August , Hitler appointed Reichsbank President Hjalmar Schacht as Minister of Economics, and in the following year, as Plenipotentiary for War Economy in charge of preparing the economy for war.
Hitler officiated at the opening ceremonies and attended events at both the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen and the Summer Games in Berlin.
In a meeting with German military leaders on 3 February , Hitler spoke of "conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy objectives.
Britain, France, Italy, and the League of Nations condemned these violations of the Treaty, but did nothing to stop it. Hitler called the signing of the AGNA "the happiest day of his life", believing that the agreement marked the beginning of the Anglo-German alliance he had predicted in Mein Kampf.
Germany reoccupied the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland in March , in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Hitler also sent troops to Spain to support General Franco during the Spanish Civil War after receiving an appeal for help in July At the same time, Hitler continued his efforts to create an Anglo-German alliance.
Hitler abandoned his plan of an Anglo-German alliance, blaming "inadequate" British leadership. He ordered preparations for war in the East, to begin as early as and no later than In the event of his death, the conference minutes, recorded as the Hossbach Memorandum , were to be regarded as his "political testament".
In February , on the advice of his newly appointed foreign minister, the strongly pro-Japanese Joachim von Ribbentrop , Hitler ended the Sino-German alliance with the Republic of China to instead enter into an alliance with the more modern and powerful Empire of Japan.
Hitler announced German recognition of Manchukuo , the Japanese-occupied state in Manchuria , and renounced German claims to their former colonies in the Pacific held by Japan.
The men agreed that Henlein would demand increased autonomy for Sudeten Germans from the Czechoslovakian government, thus providing a pretext for German military action against Czechoslovakia.
In April Henlein told the foreign minister of Hungary that "whatever the Czech government might offer, he would always raise still higher demands In late and early , the continuing economic crisis caused by rearmament forced Hitler to make major defence cuts.
On 15 March , in violation of the Munich accord and possibly as a result of the deepening economic crisis requiring additional assets,  Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht to invade Prague , and from Prague Castle he proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate.
He had repeatedly claimed that he must lead Germany into war before he got too old, as his successors might lack his strength of will. Hitler was concerned that a military attack against Poland could result in a premature war with Britain.
This plan required tacit Soviet support,  and the non-aggression pact the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union, led by Joseph Stalin , included a secret agreement to partition Poland between the two countries.
This, along with news from Italy that Mussolini would not honour the Pact of Steel , prompted Hitler to postpone the attack on Poland from 25 August to 1 September.
On 1 September , Germany invaded western Poland under the pretext of having been denied claims to the Free City of Danzig and the right to extraterritorial roads across the Polish Corridor , which Germany had ceded under the Versailles Treaty.
The fall of Poland was followed by what contemporary journalists dubbed the " Phoney War " or Sitzkrieg "sitting war". Hitler instructed the two newly appointed Gauleiters of north-western Poland, Albert Forster of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and Arthur Greiser of Reichsgau Wartheland , to Germanise their areas, with "no questions asked" about how this was accomplished.
Greiser soon complained that Forster was allowing thousands of Poles to be accepted as "racial" Germans and thus endangered German "racial purity".
On 9 April, German forces invaded Denmark and Norway. On the same day Hitler proclaimed the birth of the Greater Germanic Reich , his vision of a united empire of Germanic nations of Europe in which the Dutch, Flemish, and Scandinavians were joined into a "racially pure" polity under German leadership.
These victories prompted Mussolini to have Italy join forces with Hitler on 10 June. France and Germany signed an armistice on 22 June.
Britain, whose troops were forced to evacuate France by sea from Dunkirk ,  continued to fight alongside other British dominions in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Hitler made peace overtures to the new British leader, Winston Churchill , and upon their rejection he ordered a series of aerial attacks on Royal Air Force airbases and radar stations in south-east England.
On 7 September the systematic nightly bombing of London began. The nightly air raids on British cities intensified and continued for months, including London, Plymouth , and Coventry.
In February, German forces arrived in Libya to bolster the Italian presence. In April, Hitler launched the invasion of Yugoslavia , quickly followed by the invasion of Greece.
Hitler ordered Army Group Centre to temporarily halt its advance to Moscow and divert its Panzer groups to aid in the encirclement of Leningrad and Kiev.
Four days later, Hitler declared war against the United States. Overconfident in his own military expertise following the earlier victories in , Hitler became distrustful of his Army High Command and began to interfere in military and tactical planning, with damaging consequences.
Over , Axis soldiers were killed and , were taken prisoner. Marshal Pietro Badoglio , placed in charge of the government, soon surrendered to the Allies.
On 6 June , the Western Allied armies landed in northern France in one of the largest amphibious operations in history, Operation Overlord.
Between and , there were many plans to assassinate Hitler , some of which proceeded to significant degrees. Hitler narrowly survived because staff officer Heinz Brandt moved the briefcase containing the bomb behind a leg of the heavy conference table, which deflected much of the blast.
Recognising the strength and determination of the Red Army, Hitler decided to use his remaining mobile reserves against the American and British troops, which he perceived as far weaker.
Roosevelt on 12 April , but contrary to his expectations, this caused no rift among the Allies. In the ruined garden of the Reich Chancellery, he awarded Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth , who were now fighting the Red Army at the front near Berlin.
Hitler ordered Steiner to attack the northern flank of the salient , while the German Ninth Army was ordered to attack northward in a pincer attack.
He was told that the attack had not been launched and that the Soviets had entered Berlin. Hitler asked everyone except Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl , Hans Krebs , and Wilhelm Burgdorf to leave the room,  then launched into a tirade against the treachery and incompetence of his commanders, culminating in his declaration—for the first time—that "everything was lost".
By 23 April the Red Army had surrounded Berlin,  and Goebbels made a proclamation urging its citizens to defend the city.
On 30 April , when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler shot himself in the head and Braun bit into a cyanide capsule.
Berlin surrendered on 2 May. The remains from the boxes were burned, crushed, and scattered into the Biederitz river, a tributary of the Elbe. If the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevisation of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!
He focused on Eastern Europe for this expansion, aiming to defeat Poland and the Soviet Union and then removing or killing the Jews and Slavs.
The genocide was organised and executed by Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich. The records of the Wannsee Conference , held on 20 January and led by Heydrich, with fifteen senior Nazi officials participating, provide the clearest evidence of systematic planning for the Holocaust.
On 22 February, Hitler was recorded saying, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". Between and , the Schutzstaffel SS , assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, was responsible for the deaths of at least eleven million non-combatants,   including 5.
Many victims of the Holocaust were gassed to death, while others died of starvation or disease or while working as slave labourers.
Food supplies would be diverted to the German army and German civilians. Cities would be razed and the land allowed to return to forest or resettled by German colonists.
Hitler did not speak publicly about the killings, and seems never to have visited the concentration camps. The Nazis embraced the concept of racial hygiene.
The laws banned sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and Jews and were later extended to include "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring".
The principle relied on absolute obedience of all subordinates to their superiors; thus he viewed the government structure as a pyramid, with himself—the infallible leader —at the apex.
Rank in the party was not determined by elections—positions were filled through appointment by those of higher rank, who demanded unquestioning obedience to the will of the leader.
His cabinet never met after , and he discouraged his ministers from meeting independently. His decision to mount a risky series of offensives against Norway, France, and the Low Countries in against the advice of the military proved successful, though the diplomatic and military strategies he employed in attempts to force the United Kingdom out of the war ended in failure.
Nevertheless, he continued to believe that only his leadership could deliver victory. For peace, freedom and democracy never again fascism millions of dead remind [us].
Germany itself suffered wholesale destruction, characterised as Stunde Null Zero Hour. Rummel , the Nazi regime was responsible for the democidal killing of an estimated Historian Friedrich Meinecke described Hitler as "one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life".
He contends that without Hitler, the de-colonisation of former European spheres of influence would have been postponed. Hitler was born to a practising Catholic mother and an anticlerical father; after leaving home Hitler never again attended Mass or received the sacraments.
Conway states that Hitler was fundamentally opposed to the Christian churches. Hitler viewed the church as an important politically conservative influence on society,  and he adopted a strategic relationship with it that "suited his immediate political purposes".
Hitler was more pragmatic, and his ambitions centred on more practical concerns. Langer of Harvard University described Hitler as a "neurotic psychopath ".
Adolf Hitler , historian Robert G. Waite proposes that he suffered from borderline personality disorder. Hitler followed a vegetarian diet.
He occasionally drank beer and wine in private, but gave up drinking because of weight gain in Prescribed 90 medications during the war years by his personal physician, Theodor Morell , Hitler took many pills each day for chronic stomach problems and other ailments.
Hitler created a public image as a celibate man without a domestic life, dedicated entirely to his political mission and the nation. It was rumoured among contemporaries that Geli was in a romantic relationship with him, and her death was a source of deep, lasting pain.
Hitler exploited documentary films and newsreels to inspire a cult of personality. He was involved and appeared in a series of propaganda films throughout his political career—such as Der Sieg des Glaubens and Triumph des Willens —made by Leni Riefenstahl , regarded as a pioneer of modern filmmaking.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hitler disambiguation. Leader of Germany from to Military career of Adolf Hitler.
Political views of Adolf Hitler. Enabling Act of Economy of Nazi Germany. Axis powers , Tripartite Pact , and German re-armament. Causes of World War II.
Death of Adolf Hitler. Hitler on 20 April in his last public appearance, in the garden of the Reich Chancellery, ten days before he and Eva Braun committed suicide.
The Holocaust and Final Solution. Consequences of Nazism and Neo-Nazism. Religious views of Adolf Hitler.
Hitler family and Sexuality of Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler in popular culture and List of speeches given by Adolf Hitler.
Hitler took this title after the death of Paul von Hindenburg , who had been serving as President. Kershaw , p. Aspects of the Third Reich. Doyle, D February Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
Bendersky, Joseph W A History of Nazi Germany: Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion. Retrieved 28 March Bracher, Karl Dietrich Translated by Jean Steinberg.
Bullock, Alan . A Study in Tyranny. Butler, Ewan; Young, Gordon Arms, Autarky and Aggression. The Nazi Persecution of the Churches — The True Story of the Battle of Britain.
Dollinger, Hans . Inventing a Pathology of Catastrophe for Holocaust Survival: Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry series. University Press of New England.
The Nazi Death Camps. World Almanac Library of the Holocaust. World War II Databook: The Coming of the Third Reich.
The Third Reich in Power. The Third Reich At War. Historians agree that he never once visited a single concentration camp. He reportedly suffered from a fear of cats.
He regularly used cocaine during the war years. He was obsessed with his teenage niece , making her a virtual prisoner in his home and perhaps his lover.
Before his father changed it, the family name was Schicklgruber. Medical records show that he only had one testicle.
He received injections of bull semen to enhance his sexual virility. A priest saved him from drowning in a frozen lake as a child, reports suggest.
Before he adopted his signature mustache, he had a handlebar mustache but had to trim it after joining the army. He had extreme gastrointestinal issues and farted uncontrollably.
Bizarre treatments for his various maladies included leeches and a meth-like compound called Pervitin. He was the first European leader to ban the operation of human zoos.
He became incredibly paranoid after a food poisoning attempt and had a staff of 15 terrified young women taste test all his meals.